## Tool Overview: Percent Yield Calculator

### What This Calculator Does and Why You Should Use It

Are you facing one too many chemistry problems sets tonight? Struggling through your product forecasting homework to figure out if the factory can actually produce the 10,000 units you just sold? If you need to juggle actual yield vs. theoretical yield for a process, we aim to be your new best friend. This handy calculator is designed so that if you can give us two of three values, we'll give you the third. Use the "solve for" toggle flip between different values. Specifically:

• - Got Theoretical Yield and Actual Yield? We Calculate Percentage Yield
• - Got Theoretical Yield and Percentage Yield? We Predict Actual Yield
• - Got Actual Yield and Percent Yield (Guess)? We Predict Theoretical Yield

### Bookmarking, Save, and Share Results

The tool is designed so you can flip between different parts of a problem set. We recommend you bookmark it so you can refer back to it. You can also share results with a study partner or tutor by hitting calculate and copying the URL for this page. When your study partner opens up the URL, they will see your calculations. It's easy share & save results via email. (Be sure to hit calculate first, however)

You also have the option of saving links to the calculations in your research notes files, so you can quickly re-open or check them later. Again - hit calculate first so the URL is updated with your most recent changes. Then copy and save the url.

### What is percent yield?

Percentage yield is a concept used in chemistry which compares the theoretical yield of an experiment with the actual results observed. This percent yield calculator is intended to help navigate between three key metrics: percent yield, theoretical yield, and actual yield.

### What is theoretical yield?

The theoretical yield of a chemistry experiment or manufacturing process is the amount of product which "should" be produced if all of the reactants were fully consumed (chemistry percent yield calculator) or the manufacturing line ran at full speed without waste / bad product. The chemistry version of this can be derived using equations and known relationships from past experiments. In manufacturing, we can use machine specifications, process analysis, and time trials to estimate the theoretical capacity of a particular production line. In the real world, there are a variety of factors that will prevent you from reaching this amount.

### Why Is Actual Yield Less Than Theoretical Yield? (Chemistry)

The actual yield is often significantly lower than the theoretical yield for the reaction based on the equations. Some things that may influence this:

• Many reactions are incomplete, in the sense that a portion of the reactants are not consumed due to mixing or other issues
• Impurities and measurement errors in the initial sampling
• Other reactions may occur at the same time which consume portions of one or more of the reactants and turn them into unwanted byproducts

### Why Is Actual Yield Less Than Theoretical Yield? (Manufacturing / Industrial Process Engineering)

There are many things which can reduce actual yield from a manufacturing process. A rough list includes:

• For process manufacturing, anything mentioned in the chemistry example above. If the chemistry isn't working, we lose yield.
• Lost production from unplanned machine outages or scheduled maintenance (we turn it off for a reason)
• Lost production from equipment change overs and set up (switching products; this is why longer runs are often better)
• Lost production from variation in operator skill and machine settings / conditions
• Lost or Discarded production from quality errors (including bad raw materials)
In the event you haven't studied Lean Manufacturing, I recommend reading the literature about "muda" - a theory of types of waste that can occur within a manufacturing and logistics operation. A useful mindset that will help you find opportunities to improve.

### When do you calculate percent yield in chemistry?

This is generally part of a larger problem solving process:

Step 1: Balance The Chemical Equation: Understand the nature of the reaction. What are the inputs (the reactants)? What are the products? In what ratio are the inputs converted into products?

Step 2: Identify the Limiting Reagent: The two reagents are rarely available in perfectly balanced amounts. Use the relationship identified in the chemical equation to determine which one will be the constraint.

Step 3: Calculate Theoretical Yield: How much product should the experiment have produced if the limiting reagent was totally and efficiently consumed.

Step 4: Calculate Actual Yield: Amount of product observed at the conclusion of the experiment. Should be in your lab notes.

Step 5: Percentage Yield: Ratio of Actual to Theoretical Yield.

### Manufacturing: Using The Percent Yield Calculator

We use similar mathematics in manufacturing engineering to estimate the actual production rate of a piece of new equipment. If we have a line that should produce 200 cases of product per hour, we need to adjust this theoretical yield to include any losses from downtime, equipment change overs / set up, or equipment issues. While there are more sophisticated measures (generally aimed at tracking back the sources of inefficiencies to specific causes: labor productivity, downtime, equipment changes, etc), the percent yield calculator works great for figuring out how much we can pull off the line over a longer period of time. This is good for a pricing or planning model.

I would suggest investing the time to use the percent yield calculator to assemble a rough table of efficiencies for your major machines. You can use this line level data and an understanding of theoretical capacity to use the percent yield calculator to estimate actual rates of production for a new product (or redesigned line).

### Finding Molar Mass for Specific Compounds

Our molar mass calculator has this for a variety of other compounds: sodium chloride, carbon dioxide, sulfuric acid, glucose...

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